Dental Caries: A Review
Dental Caries: A Review
Dental caries, a chronic disease is unique among human and is one of the most common important global oral health problems in the world today. It is the destruction of dental hard acellular tissue by acidic by-products from the bacterial fermentation of dietary carbohydrates especially sucrose. It progresses slowly in most of the people which results from an ecological imbalance in the equilibrium between tooth minerals and oral biofilms which is characterised by microbial activity, resulting in fluctuations in plaque pH due to bacterial acid production, buffering action from saliva and the surrounding tooth structure. The microbial community of caries is diverse and contains many facultatively and obligately-anaerobic bacteria. S. mutans is the most primary associated with it. Dental caries can affect the human in various ways i.e. presence of tooth pain, infection or dysfunction of the stomatognathic system can limit the necessary ingestion of energetic foods, affecting the growth in children and adults as well as their learning, communication skills and recreational activities. Moreover, oral and pharyngeal cancers and oral tissue lesions are also significant health concern. Cavernous sinus thrombosis and Ludwig angina can be life-threatening. Due to this, treatment is needed for dental diseases which cost is normally high and is not feasible for all community due to limited resources such as time, person and money. Therefore, prevention is more affordable. Personal hygiene cares and dietary modification should be recommended.
The present review documents several risk factors of dental caries which had numerous interventions to prevent caries. Since extensive damage from caries can lead to major problems for the individual, affecting quality of life both functionally and esthetically. Increasing the awareness and knowledge about dental caries in general can increase their knowledge and skills in oral health care. Having the ability to identify potential health risk factors such as lifestyle, ethnicity, health status, and social determinants associated with oral health status risk, health care providers can take an active role in health screening to discover any need for clinical preventive services, including dental preventive services, and can detect health problems. With proper knowledge and oral health behavior, health care professionals can play an important role in the oral health education of individuals and groups and act as role models for patients, friends, families and the community at large. Good general health also includes good oral health. Hence, preventing caries is an important element in public health efforts. Personal hygiene cares (proper brushing with flouride tooth paste and flossing daily) and dietary modification (minimizing snacking, chewing gum, milk and green vegetables) should be recommended. Raising public awareness about dental check-up may assist in early diagnosis.
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Annie Grace Sarah