Challenges in Early detection treatment and prevention possibilities
Oncology is a branch of science that deals with identification, treatment of cancer. Cancer has become one of the major cause of death in the recent times. Among many types of cancers most common types of cancers seen in women are breast cancer, cervical cancer, lung cancer, skin cancer. Cancers are often managed through therapy like chemotherapy, radiation therapy.
- Breast Cancer
- Cervical Cancer
- Ovarian Cancer
Breast cancer is the most common kind of cancer being diagnosed in women. Breast Cancer is commonly identified by a lump in the breast, increase in the size of one breast than the other, discoloration, oozing of white fluid from nipple. Many women often ignore these symptoms leading to the increasing the risk of death. Breast cancer triggering factors include family history of cancer, obesity, diabetes, life style, auto immune diseases like lupus erythematous.
- Family history
- Smoking/Alcohol Consumption
- Auto immune diseases
Cervical Cancer is a type of cancer arising in cervix. This type of cancer is mostly commonly seen in people having Human papillomavirus Infections. Other factors include usage of oral contraceptive pills at a early age, having multiple sexual partners, having more than 7 full term pregnancies. Identification includes abnormal pain in the cervix, abnormal vaginal bleeding.
- squamous cell carcinoma
- adenosquamous carcinoma
- small cell carcinoma
- neuroendocrine tumour
- glassy cell carcinoma
Ovarian Cancer is a type of cancer which occurs in one or two of the ovaries. This type of cancer often goes undetected until it is spread to pelvis and uterus at this stage it is much difficult to treat the cancer. Risk factors often include age, family history of cancer, inherited gene mutations, estrogen replacement therapy, age when mensuration started and ended.
Endometrial cancer is a type of cancer which occurs in the layers of endometrium. This is also called as uterine cancer. This starts in the inner lining of the uterus abnormal vaginal bleeding ranging from watery flow to more volume of blood loss. Often it is identified by abnormal PAP tests, pelvic pain, and difficulty while urinating.
- abdominal hysterectomy
Lung cancer has become the most common disease in women than in men. Usually smoking causes lung cancer in men but in women non-smokers are more susceptible to lung cancer. There are no proven facts that carcinogens in the cigarette are the complete cause of lung cancer. It has been observed that the estrogen plays a major role in onset and progression of the disease.
Early detection of cancer helps in saving the life with medication and proper therapy. The screening of cancer cells should be done yearly or biannual which include mammograms, PAP test, and biopsy. These test help in identifying the cancer before is spreads to other parts of the body and worsen the case.
- Yearly Mammograms
- PAP test
- Endometrial Biopsy
- Low dose CT scan
Cancer Cell Signalling:
For normal functioning and working of the body the communication between the cells is most important. The receptor cells sends signal which asks the cell what, when and how to function the system. Any change or disturbances in the signaling can massive help in the progression and growth of cancer cells. The cancer cells interfere with the normal functioning of the body and send out signals similar to that of the normal cells hence immune system does not interfere with the cell functioning and growth. During normal chemotherapy due to this phenomenon the normal actively growing cells are also destroyed. Hence cancer cell targeting therapy is being developed hence sparing the normal cells.
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Journal of Molecular Oncology Research