Blood transfusion


Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood products into one's circulation intravenously. Transfusions are used for various medical conditions to replace lost components of the blood. Early transfusions used whole blood, but modern medical practice commonly uses only components of the blood, such as red blood cells, white blood cells, plasma, clotting factors, and platelets.

Red blood cells (RBC) contain hemoglobin, and supply the cells of the body with oxygen. White blood cells are not commonly used during transfusion, but are part of the immune system, and fight infections. Plasma is the "yellowish" liquid part of blood, which acts as a buffer, and contains proteins and important substances needed for the body's overall health. Platelets are involved in blood clotting, preventing the body from bleeding. Before these components were known, doctors believed that blood was homogenous. Because of this, many patients died because incompatible blood was transferred to them.Medical uses

The patient receives a blood transfusion through the cannula.

Canned blood during the blood transfusion process.

Historically, red blood cell transfusion was considered when the hemoglobin level fell below 10 g/dL or hematocrit fell below 30%. Because each unit of blood given carries risks, a trigger level lower than that, at 7 to 8 g/dL, is now usually used, as it has been shown to have better patient outcomes. The administration of a single unit of blood is the standard for hospitalized people who are not bleeding, with this treatment followed with re-assessment and consideration of symptoms and hemoglobin concentration. Patients with poor oxygen saturation may need more blood. The advisory caution to use blood transfusion only with more severe anemia is in part due to evidence that outcomes are worsened if larger amounts are given.One may consider transfusion for people with symptoms of cardiovascular disease such as chest pain or shortness of breath. In cases where patients have low levels of hemoglobin due to iron deficiency, but are cardiovascularly stable, parenteral iron is a preferred option based on both efficacy and safety.Other blood products are given where appropriate, e.g., to treat clotting deficiencies.

Clinical uses

Canned blood during the blood bonding measure.

Truly, red platelet bonding was viewed as when the hemoglobin level fell under 10 g/dL or hematocrit fell beneath 30%. Because every unit of blood given conveys chances, a trigger level lower than that, at 7 to 8 g/dL, is presently normally utilized, as it has been appeared to have better understanding outcomes dependent on both adequacy and safety. Other blood items are given where proper, e.g., to treat coagulating lacks.